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发表于 2009-6-22 21:21:22 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
RESEARCH NOTES AND REPORTS 367
(1977) finding that repeaters tended to be anemic tourists and Crompton’s
(1979:418) observation that for some people, “trips were people oriented
rather than place oriented.”
Two generalizable implications appear to emerge from this study. First, it
reinforces an earlier finding that “The distinctiveness of the repeater and
non-repeater segments suggests that uniquely different marketing efforts targeted
at each segment would be successful” (Gitelson and Crompton 1984:
215). Second, much of the tourism industry appears to continue to operate
primarily on the premise that pull factors are the key motivators and that
people go on a vacation to do and see things. Many researchers appear to have
tacitly endorsed this premise, and this has been manifested by the relatively
substantial literature that has emerged on destination image and attributes.
In contrast, there has been relatively little empirical work reported in the
literature relating to push motives. The findings reported here suggest that
this imbalance needs redressing. 0 0
John Crompton: Deportment of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University,
College Station TX 77843-2261, USA.
REFERENCES
Crompton, John L.
1979 Motivations for Pleasure Vacation. Annals of Tourism Research 6(4):408-
424.
Dann, Graham M. S.
1977 Anomie, Ego-enhancement and Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 4(4):
184-194.
Driver. Beverlv L.
1977 Item pool for Scale Designed to Quantify the Psychological Outcomes Desired
and Expected from Recreation Participation. Unpublished Report. Fort Collins
CO: North Central Forest Experiment Station.
Gitelson, Richard J., and John L. Crompton
1984 Insights into the Repeat Vacation Phenomenon. Annals of Tourism Research
11(2):199-218.
Vincent, Vern, and Gilbert0 de 10s Santos
1989 1988-89 Winter Texan Reoort. Brownsville TX: School of Business Administration,
University of Texas-Pan American.
Submitted 15 May 1991
Accepted 15 June 1991
An Ecotourism Assessment of Tortuguero, Costa Rica
As the demand for nature-oriented tourism increases and the supply of
natural resource amenities decreases, the need for understanding how to manage
ecologically valuable areas grows. Currently, efforts to manage these areas
and plan for sustainable development are hampered by insufficient information
(Boo 1990). This study offers an assessment procedure for existing tourism
areas that provides information for managing culturally and ecologically
David N. B. Lee
David J. Snepenger
Montana State University, USA
368 RESEARCH NOTES AND REPORTS
valuable areas. The assessment procedure compares existing guest and host
characteristics with an ideal ecotourism system. An ecotourism system considers
all significant relationships among tourists, the host community, tourism
businesses, natural resource managers, the natural resource amenities that
provide the foundation for ecotourism, and the necessary infrastructure for
the elements of the system to function.
Ecotourism is an emerging development strategy for sustainable development
whereby natural resource amenities, the local community, and the visitor
benefit from tourism activity. Existing tourism development in any area
can be compared to an ideal ecotourism development strategy. This development
strategy considers the guests and hosts and their long-run impact upon
the ecological/cultural amenities of the area. Ideal ecotourists are motivated
to participate in culturally and ecologically sensitive activities, expect their
expenditures to be used to support the local economy and resource conservation,
and are willing to contribute to conservation and sustainable development
in the area after their trip (Boo 1990; Kutay 1989; Ziffer 1989).
Consistent with ecotourism values, the ideal host system cultivates infrastructure
and superstructure sensitive to environmental and cultural needs.
The system maintains a long-term planning strategy that involves local people
and fosters an economy in which residents benefit from tourism. Benefits are
often manifested by the quality of community services such as education and
health care.
The ideal ecotourism system also incorporates local involvement early in
the planning stages of conservation projects (Budowski 1982; Nations and
Komer 1983). Place (1991) extends this viewpoint to park-based tourism,
emphasizing the relationship among conservation, economic development,
and local involvement. Furthermore, the ideal system strives to minimize the
negative aspects of tourism, well documented by Boo (1990), Britton (1980),
Hill (1990), and Wilkinson (1989). Last, this orientation utilizes a system that
guarantees the protection of attractions and ensures that they also benefit
from tourism activity.
To demonstrate the utility of the ecotourism assessment methodology, tourism
development in Tortuguero, Costa Rica, was examined. The Tortuguero
area, located on the Caribbean Coast, consists of a village of 2 11 residents and
Tortuguero National Park. Historically, the Tortuguero’s economy thrived on
sea turtle harvesting, logging, and small scale agriculture, but tourism is now
its major source of revenue (Place 1991). With no road access, Tortuguero
can only be reached by airplane or boat.
Tourists are attracted to the annual green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) nesting
activity and to the high level of biological diversity found in the surrounding
Amazonlike rainforest. Its remote sandy beaches provide ideal nesting areas
for sea turtles, and a series of inland canals allow access to the rainforest,
which is among the last remaining in Costa Rica.
The study was conducted June through August, 1990. The data-gathering
portion of the study required approximately 3 weeks. Data were collected
发表于 2009-6-22 21:33:03 | 显示全部楼层
??
这是什么意思。
发表于 2010-12-26 06:08:21 | 显示全部楼层
文不对题,希望移动到文章板块去。无法移动,请本站老总出来解决!
发表于 2013-11-4 12:24:18 | 显示全部楼层
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